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淬火目的


  CUIHUOMUDE

澳门足彩  CUIHUODEMUDESHISHIGUOLENGAOSHITIJINXINGMASHITIHUOBEISHITIZHUANBIAN,DEDAOMASHITIHUOBEISHITIZUZHI,RANHOUPEIHEYIBUTONGWENDUDEHUIHUO,YIDAFUTIGAOGANGDEQIANGDU、YINGDU、NAIMOXING、PILAOQIANGDUYIJIRENXINGDENG,CONGERMANZUGEZHONGJIXIELINGJIANHEGONGJUDEBUTONGSHIYONGYAOQIU。YEKEYITONGGUOCUIHUOMANZUMOUXIETEZHONGGANGCAIDETIECIXING、NAISHIXINGDENGTESHUDEWULI、HUAXUEXINGNENG。[1]

  CUIHUOGONGYI

  JIANGJINSHUGONGJIANJIAREDAOMOUYISHIDANGWENDUBINGBAOCHIYIDUANSHIJIAN,SUIJIJINRUCUILENGJIEZHIZHONGKUAISULENGQUEDEJINSHURECHULIGONGYI。CHANGYONGDECUILENGJIEZHIYOUYANSHUI、SHUI、KUANGWUYOU、KONGQIDENG。CUIHUOKEYITIGAOJINSHUGONGJIANDEYINGDUJINAIMOXING,YINERGUANGFANYONGYUGEZHONGGONG、MO、LIANGJUJIYAOQIUBIAOMIANNAIMODELINGJIAN(RUCHILUN、YAGUN、SHENTANLINGJIANDENG)。TONGGUOCUIHUOYUBUTONGWENDUDEHUIHUOPEIHE,KEYIDAFUDUTIGAOJINSHUDEQIANGDU、RENXINGJIPILAOQIANGDU,BINGKEHUODEZHEIXIEXINGNENGZHIJIANDEPEIHE(ZONGHEJIXIEXINGNENG)YIMANZUBUTONGDESHIYONGYAOQIU。LINGWAICUIHUOHAIKESHIYIXIETESHUXINGNENGDEGANGHUODEYIDINGDEWULIHUAXUEXINGNENG,RUCUIHUOSHIYONGCIGANGZENGQIANGQITIECIXING、BUXIUGANGTIGAOQINAISHIXINGDENG。CUIHUOGONGYIZHUYAOYONGYUGANGJIAN。CHANGYONGDEGANGZAIJIAREDAOLINJIEWENDUYISHANGSHI,YUANYOUZAISHIWENXIADEZUZHIJIANGQUANBUHUODABUZHUANBIANWEIAOSHITI。SUIHOUJIANGGANGJINRUSHUIHUOYOUZHONGKUAISULENGQUE,AOSHITIJIZHUANBIANWEIMASHITI。YUGANGZHONGQITAZUZHIXIANGBI,MASHITIYINGDUZUIGAO。CUIHUOSHIDEKUAISULENGQUEHUISHIGONGJIANNEIBUCHANSHENGNEIYINGLI,DANGQIDADAOYIDINGCHENGDUSHIGONGJIANBIANHUIFASHENGNIUQUBIANXINGSHENZHIKAILIE。WEICIBIXUXUANZEHESHIDELENGQUEFANGFA。GENJULENGQUEFANGFA,CUIHUOGONGYIFENWEIDANYECUIHUO、SHUANGJIEZHICUIHUO、MASHITIFENJICUIHUOHEBEISHITIDENGWENCUIHUO4LEI。[1]

澳门足彩  CUIHUOXIAOGUODEZHONGYAOYINSU,CUIHUOGONGJIANYINGDUYAOQIUHEJIANCEFANGFA:

  CUIHUOGONGJIANDEYINGDU

澳门足彩  CUIHUOGONGJIANDEYINGDUYINGXIANGLECUIHUODEXIAOGUO。CUIHUOGONGJIANYIBANCAIYONGLUOSHIYINGDUJICEDINGQIHRCZHI。CUIHUODEBOYINGGANGBANHEBIAOMIANCUIHUOGONGJIANKECEDINGHRAZHI,ERHOUDUXIAOYU0.8mmDECUIHUOGANGBAN、QIANCENGBIAOMIANCUIHUOGONGJIANHEZHIJINGXIAOYU5mmDECUIHUOGANGBANG,KEGAIYONGBIAOMIANLUOSHIYINGDUJICEDINGQIHRNZHI。 [1]

  ZAIHANJIEZHONGTANGANGHEMOUXIEHEJINGANGSHI,REYINGXIANGQUZHONGKENENGFASHENGCUIHUOXIANXIANGERBIANYING,YIXINGCHENGLENGLIEWEN,ZHEISHIZAIHANJIEGUOCHENGZHONGYAOSHEFAFANGZHIDE。

  YOUYUCUIHUOHOUJINSHUYINGERCUI,CHANSHENGDEBIAOMIANCANYUYINGLIHUIZAOCHENGLENGLIEWEN,HUIHUOKEZUOWEIZAIBUYINGXIANGYINGDUDEJICHUSHANG,XIAOCHULENGLIEWENDESHOUDUANZHIYI。

  CUIHUODUIHOUDU、ZHIJINGJIAOXIAODELINGJIANSHIYONGBIJIAOHESHI,DUIYUGUODADELINGJIAN,CUIHUOSHENDUBUGOU,SHENTANYECUNZAITONGYANGWENTI,CISHIYINGKAOLVZAIGANGCAIZHONGJIARUGEDENGHEJINLAIZENGJIAQIANGDU。

  CUIHUOSHIGANGTIECAILIAOQIANGHUADEJIBENSHOUDUANZHIYI。GANGZHONGMASHITISHITIEJIGURONGTIZUZHIZHONGZUIYINGDEXIANG(BIAO1),GUGANGJIANCUIHUOKEYIHUODEGAOYINGDU、GAOQIANGDU。DANSHI,MASHITIDECUIXINGHENDA,JIAZHICUIHUOHOUGANGJIANNEIBUYOUJIAODADECUIHUONEIYINGLI,YINERBUYIZHIJIEYINGYONG,BIXUJINXINGHUIHUO。

  CUIHUOGONGYIDEYINGYONG

  CUIHUOGONGYIZAIXIANDAIJIXIEZHIZAOGONGYEDEDAOGUANGFANDEYINGYONG。JIXIEZHONGZHONGYAOLINGJIAN,YOUQIZAIQICHE、FEIJI、HUOJIANZHONGYINGYONGDEGANGJIANJIHUDOUJINGGUOCUIHUOCHULI。WEIMANZUGEZHONGLINGJIANGANCHAWANBIEDEJISHUYAOQIU,FAZHANLEGEZHONGCUIHUOGONGYI。RU,ANJIESHOUCHULIDEBUWEI,YOUZHENGTI、JUBUCUIHUOHEBIAOMIANCUIHUO;ANJIARESHIXIANGBIANSHIFOUWANQUAN,YOUWANQUANCUIHUOHEBUWANQUANCUIHUO(DUIYUYAGONGXIGANG,GAIFAYOUCHENGYALINJIECUIHUO);ANLENGQUESHIXIANGBIANDENEIRONG,YOUFENJICUIHUO,DENGWENCUIHUOHEQIANSUCUIHUODENG。

  工艺过程 包括加热、保温、冷却3个阶段。下面以钢的淬火为例,介绍上述三个阶段工艺参数选择的原则。

  淬火加热温度

澳门足彩  YIGANGDEXIANGBIANLINJIEDIANWEIYIJU,JIARESHIYAOXINGCHENGXIXIAO、JUNYUNAOSHITIJINGLI,CUIHUOHOUHUODEXIXIAOMASHITIZUZHI。TANSUGANGDECUIHUOJIAREWENDUFANWEIRUTU1SUOSHI。

  CUIHUOJIAREWENDUFANWEI

澳门足彩  CUIHUOWENDUXUANZEYUANZEYESHIYONGYUDADUOSHUHEJINGANG,YOUQIDIHEJINGANG。YAGONGXIGANGJIAREWENDUWEIAc3WENDUYISHANG30~50℃。CONGTUSHANGKAN,GAOWENXIAGANGDEZHUANGTAICHUZAIDANXIANGAOSHITI(A)QUNEI,GUCHENGWEIWANQUANCUIHUO。RUYAGONGXIGANGJIAREWENDUGAOYUAc1、DIYUAc3WENDU,ZEGAOWENXIABUFENXIANGONGXITIESUTIWEIWANQUANZHUANBIANCHENGAOSHITI,JIWEIBUWANQUAN(HUOYALINJIE)CUIHUO。GUOGONGXIGANGCUIHUOWENDUWEIAc1WENDUYISHANG30~50℃,ZHEIWENDUFANWEICHUYUAOSHITIYUSHENTANTI(A+C)SHUANGXIANGQU。YINERGUOGONGXIGANGDEZHENGCHANGDECUIHUORENGSHUBUWANQUANCUIHUO,CUIHUOHOUDEDAOMASHITIJITISHANGFENBUSHENTANTIDEZUZHI。ZHEI-ZUZHIZHUANGTAIJUYOUGAOYINGDUHEGAONAIMOXING。DUIYUGUOGONGXIGANG,RUOJIAREWENDUGUOGAO,XIANGONGXISHENTANTIRONGJIEGUODUO,SHENZHIWANQUANRONGJIE,ZEAOSHITIJINGLIJIANGFASHENGZHANGDA,AOSHITITANHANLIANGYEZENGJIA。CUIHUOHOU,CUDAMASHITIZUZHISHIGANGJIANCUIHUOTAIWEIQUNEIYINGLIZENGJIA,WEILIEWENZENGDUO,LINGJIANDEBIANXINGHEKAILIEQINGXIANGZENGJIA;YOUYUAOSHITITANNONGDUGAO,MASHITIDIANXIAJIANG,CANLIUAOSHITILIANGZENGJIA,SHIGONGJIANDEYINGDUHENAIMOXINGJIANGDI。CHANGYONGGANGZHONGCUIHUODEWENDUCANJIANBIAO2。

澳门足彩  CHANGYONGGANGZHONGCUIHUODEJIAREWENDU

  SHIJISHENGCHANZHONG,JIAREWENDUDEXUANZEYAOGENJUJUTIQINGKUANGJIAYIDIAOZHENG。RUYAGONGXIGANGZHONGTANHANLIANGWEIXIAXIAN,DANGZHUANGLULIANGJIAODUO,YUZENGJIALINGJIANCUIYINGCENGSHENDUDENGSHIKEXUANYONGWENDUSHANGXIAN;RUOGONGJIANXINGZHUANGFUZA,BIANXINGYAOQIUYANGEDENGYAOCAIYONGWENDUXIAXIAN。

  CUIHUOBAOWEN

  CUIHUOBAOWENSHIJIAN YOUSHEBEIJIAREFANGSHI、LINGJIANCHICUN、GANGDECHENGFEN、ZHUANGLULIANGHESHEBEIGONGLVDENGDUOZHONGYINSUQUEDING。DUIZHENGTICUIHUOERYAN,BAOWENDEMUDESHISHIGONGJIANNEIBUWENDUJUNYUNQUYUYIZHI。DUIGELEICUIHUO,QIBAOWENSHIJIANZUIZHONGQUJUEYUZAIYAOQIUCUIHUODEQUYUHUODELIANGHAODECUIHUOJIAREZUZHI。

  JIAREYUBAOWENSHIYINGXIANGCUIHUOZHILIANGDEZHONGYAOHUANJIE,AOSHITIHUAHUODEDEZUZHIZHUANGTAIZHIJIEYINGXIANGCUIHUOHOUDEXINGNENG。-BANGANGJIANAOSHITIJINGLIKONGZHIZAI5~8JI。

  CUIHUOLENGQUE

  要使钢中高温相——奥氏体在冷却过程中转变成低温亚稳相——马氏体,冷却速度必须大于钢的临界冷却速度。工件在冷却过程中,
  淬火冷却

  表面与心部的冷却速度有-定差异,如果这种差异足够大,则可能造成大于临界冷却速度部分转变成马氏体,而小于临界冷却速度的心部不能转变成马氏体的情况。为保证整个截面上都转变为马氏体需要选用冷却能力足够强的淬火介质,以保证工件心部有足够高的冷却速度。但是冷却速度大,工件内部由于热胀冷缩不均匀造成内应力,可能使工件变形或开裂。因而要考虑上述两种矛盾因素,合理选择淬火介质和冷却方式。
  冷却阶段不仅零件获得合理的组织,达到所需要的性能,而且要保持零件的尺寸和形状精度,是淬火工艺过程的关键环节
澳门足彩   单介质淬火

  工件在一种介质中冷却,如水淬、油淬。优点是操作简单,易于实现机械化,应用广泛。缺点是在水中淬火应力大,工件容易变形开裂;在油中淬火,冷却速度小,淬透直径小,大型工件不易淬透。
澳门足彩 双介质淬火

  GONGJIANXIANZAIJIAOQIANGLENGQUENENGLIJIEZHIZHONGLENGQUEDAO300℃ZUOYOU,ZAIZAIYIZHONGLENGQUENENGLIJIAORUODEJIEZHIZHONGLENGQUE,RU:XIANSHUICUIHOUYOUCUI,KEYOUXIAOJIANSHAOMASHITIZHUANBIANDENEIYINGLI,JIANXIAOGONGJIANBIANXINGKAILIEDEQINGXIANG,KEYONGYUXINGZHUANGFUZA、JIEMIANBUJUNYUNGONGJIANCUIHUO。SHUANGYECUIHUODEQUEDIANSHINANYIZHANGWOSHUANGYEZHUANHUANDESHIKE,ZHUANHUANGUOZAORONGYICUIBUYING,ZHUANHUANGUOCHIYOURONGYICUILIE。WEILEKEFUZHEIYIQUEDIAN,FAZHANLEFENJICUIHUOFA。FENJICUIHUO

  工件在低温盐浴或碱浴炉中淬火,盐浴或碱浴的温度在Ms点附近,工件在这一温度停留2min~5min,然后取出空冷,这种冷却方式叫分级淬火。分级冷却的目的,是为了使工件内外温度较为均匀,同时进行马氏体转变,可以大大减小淬火应力,防止变形开裂。分级温度以前都定在略高于Ms点,工件内外温度均匀以后进入马氏体区。现在改进为在略低于 Ms 点的温度分级。实践表明,在Ms 点以下分级的效果更好。例如,高碳钢模具在160℃的碱浴中分级淬火,既能淬硬,变形又小,所以应用很广泛。
澳门足彩   等温淬火

  工件在等温盐浴中淬火,盐浴温度在贝氏体区的下部(稍高于Ms),工件等温停留较长时间,直到贝氏体转变结束,取出空冷。等温淬火用于中碳以上的钢,目的是为了获得下贝氏体,以提高强度、硬度、韧性和耐磨性。低碳钢一般不采用等温淬火。 表面淬火  表面淬火是将刚件的表面层淬透到一定的深度,而心部分仍保持未淬火状态的一种局部淬火的方法。表面淬火时通过快速加热,使刚件表面很快到淬火的温度,在热量来不及穿到工件心部就立即冷却,实现局部淬火。
  感应淬火
  感应加热就是利用电磁感应在工件内产生涡流而将工件进行加热。

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